Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
This report and other reports filed by our Company from time to time with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (collectively the "Filings") contain or may contain forward-looking statements and information that are based upon beliefs of, and information currently available to, our management as well as estimates and assumptions made by our management. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which are only predictions and speak only as of the date hereof. When used in the filings, the words "anticipate," "believe," "estimate," "expect," "future," "intend," "plan," or the negative of these terms and similar expressions as they relate to us or our management identify forward-looking statements. Such statements reflect our current view with respect to future events and are subject to risks, uncertainties, assumptions, and other factors, including those set forth in the Risk Factors on page 9. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should the underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may differ significantly from those anticipated, believed, estimated, expected, intended, or planned.
Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance, or achievements. Except as required by applicable law, including the securities laws of the United States, we do not intend to update any of the forward-looking statements to conform these statements to actual results.
Our financial statements are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States ("GAAP"). These accounting principles require us to make certain estimates, judgments and assumptions. We believe that the estimates, judgments and assumptions upon which we rely are reasonable based upon information available to us at the time that these estimates, judgments and assumptions are made. These estimates, judgments and assumptions can affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements as well as the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the periods presented. Our financial statements would be affected to the extent there are material differences between these estimates and actual results. In many cases, the accounting treatment of a particular transaction is specifically dictated by GAAP and does not require management's judgment in its application. There are also areas in which management's judgment in selecting any available alternative would not produce a materially different result. The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and notes thereto appearing elsewhere in this report.
Results of Operations
Analysis of the Year Ended December 31, 2010 versus December 31, 2009
Revenues from the sale of products, net were approximately $4.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to revenue from the sale of product of approximately $1.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2009. Sales activities during the year ended December 31, 2010, increased due to the increase advertising and promotion efforts and the change in manufacturers which provided more consistent shipments to customers.
Cost of sales for the year ended December 31, 2010 were approximately $2.8 million or 70% of revenue as compared to approximately $0.9 million or 91% of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2009. The cost of goods sold as percent of revenue decreased due to the change in manufacturers as we realize savings offered by quantity discounts.
Operating Expenses for the year ended December 31, 2010 were approximately $19.5 million as compared to approximately $2.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2009. The $17.5 million increase is primarily due to an increase in adverting and promotion of approximately $5.9 million, an increase in professional fees of approximately $2.9 million, an increase in salaries and benefits of approximately $6.7 million
Operating Loss for the year ended December 31, 2010 was approximately $18.3 million as compared to approximately $1.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2009.
Interest expense for the year ended December 31, 2010 was approximately $0.5 million as compared to approximately $0.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2009. The increase in interest expense primarily relates to amortization of the debt discounts of $0.4 million.
Other expenses for the year ended December 31, 2010 was approximately $.8 million as compared to $0 for the year ended December 31, 2009. The increase in other expenses is primarily due to derivative loss of $.2 million and to loss on settlement of accounts payable $0.4 million.
Net Loss for the year ended December 31, 2010 was approximately $19.6 million or loss per share of $0.48 as compared to the net loss of approximately $1.9 million or loss per share of $.0.07 for the year ended December 31, 2009.
Inflation did not have a material impact on the Company's operations for the period. Other than the foregoing, management knows of no trends, demands, or uncertainties that are reasonably likely to have a material impact on the Company's results of operations.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Our primary source of operating cash has been through the sale of equity and through the issuance of convertible secured promissory notes and other short term debt as discussed below.
At December 31, 2010, the Company had cash of approximately $43,700 and a working capital deficit of approximately $2.8 million, compared to overdrawn bank accounts of $17,841 and a working capital deficit of approximately $1.2 million at December 31, 2009. The working capital deficit increase of $1.6 million is primarily attributed to the operating losses incurred for the year ended December 31, 2010.
Cash used in operating activities was approximately $3.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to cash used in operating activities of approximately $1.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2009. The increase in cash used in operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2010 compared to the year ended December 31, 2009 was primarily the result of the net operating loss net of non-cash expenses.
Cash used in investing activities was $117,303 for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to cash used in investing activities of $24,407 for the year ended December 31, 2009. The increase in cash used in investing activities represents purchases of property and equipment. We also maintain a website http://www.musclepharm.com), designed for customers and investors. Future investments in property and equipment, as well as further development of our Internet presence will largely depend on available capital resources.
Cash flows provided by financing activities were approximately $4.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to cash flows provided by financing activities of approximately $1.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2009.
The approximately $2.9 million increase is due to the $1.2 million increase proceeds from issuance of debt, an increase $358,077 from issuance of debt – related party and the increase of approximately $1.5 million due to issuance of common stock and warrants – net of recapitalization payment.
|December 31||December 31|
|Cash Flows From Financing Activities: For the Years Ended||2010||2009|
|Cash overdraft||(17,841 )||5,839|
|Due to related party||(27,929 )||83,208|
|Proceeds from issuance of debt||2,140,608||932,500|
|Proceeds from issuance of debt – related party||358,077||–|
|Repayments on debt||–||(5,000 )|
|Proceeds from issuance of common stock and warrants – net of recapitalization payment||1,503,569||–|
|Net Cash Provided By Financing Activities||3,956,484||1,120,555|
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
Other than the operating leases, as of December 31, 2010, MusclePharm did not have any off-balance sheet arrangements.
Critical Accounting Policies
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with US GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions. These estimates and assumptions affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reported period. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates. MusclePharm believes the following accounting policies are critical to the judgments and estimates used in the preparation of its financial statements:
Accounts Receivable. MusclePharm performs ongoing evaluations of its customer's financial condition and generally does not require collateral. Management reviews accounts receivable periodically and reduces the carrying amount by a valuation allowance that reflects management's best estimate of amounts that may not be collectible. Allowances, if any, for uncollectible accounts receivable are determined based upon information available and historical experience.
Property and Equipment. Property and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Included in property and equipment are website development costs which represent capitalized costs of design, configuration, coding, installation, and testing of the Company's website. Depreciation is computed on the straight-line method over the asset's useful lives which range from three to five years. Maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred; improvements and betterments are capitalized.
Long-Lived Assets. MusclePharm's primary long-lived assets are property and equipment. The Company assesses the recoverability of its long-lived assets whenever events and circumstances indicate the carrying value of an asset or asset group may not be recoverable from estimated future cash flows expected to result from its use and eventual disposition.
Fair Value Measurements. The Company follows guidance for fair value measurements which defines fair value, establishes a framework for using fair value to measure financial assets and liabilities on a recurring basis, and expands disclosures about fair value measurements. The Company also applies the guidance to non-financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a non-recurring basis, which includes goodwill and intangible assets. The guidance establishes a hierarchy for inputs used in measuring fair value that maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that the most observable inputs be used when available. Observable inputs are inputs that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability developed based on market data obtained from sources independent of the Company. Unobservable inputs are inputs that reflect the Company's assumptions of what market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability developed based on the best information available in the circumstances. The hierarchy is broken down into three levels based on the reliability of the inputs as follows:
Level 1 – Valuation is based upon unadjusted quoted market prices for identical assets or liabilities in active markets that the Company has the ability to access.
Level 2 -Valuation is based upon quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets; quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in inactive markets; or valuations based on models where the significant inputs are observable in the market.
Level 3 – Valuation is based on models where significant inputs are not observable. The unobservable inputs reflect the Company's own assumptions about the inputs that market participants would use.
Financial instruments consist of cash, accounts receivable, prepaid expenses, accounts payable and accrued expenses. The carrying amount of these financial instruments approximates fair value due to their short-term nature or the current rates at which the Company could borrow funds with similar remaining maturities. Unless otherwise noted, it is management's opinion that the Company is not exposed to significant interest, currency or credit risks arising from these financial statements.
Derivative Financial Instruments. Fair value accounting requires bifurcation of embedded derivative instruments such as conversion features in convertible debt or equity instruments, and measurement of their fair value for accounting purposes. In determining the appropriate fair value, the Company uses the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. In assessing the convertible debt instruments, management determines if the convertible debt host instrument is conventional convertible debt and further if there is a beneficial conversion feature requiring measurement. If the instrument is not considered conventional convertible debt, the Company will continue its evaluation process of these instruments as derivative financial instruments.
Revenue Recognition The Company records revenue when all of the following have occurred; (1) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, (2) product has been shipped or delivered, (3) the sales price to the customer is fixed or determinable, and (4) collectability is reasonably assured.
Depending on individual customer agreements, sales are recognized either upon shipment of products to customers or upon delivery. The Company records sales allowances and discounts as a direct reduction of sales. Sales for the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009 are as follows:
|Sales||$ 4,199,959||$ 1,385,117|
|Sales – net||$ 4,047,295||$ 1,017,916|
The Company has an informal 7-day right of return for products. However, there were nominal returns in 2010 and 2009. During 2010 and 2009, the Company had the following concentrations of revenues with customers:
Sponsorship and Endorsement Agreements. As a component of its marketing strategy, the Company enters into sponsorship and endorsement agreements with prominent athletes, trainers, and other high profile individuals that provide the Company ongoing sources of exposure to its products. The agreements sometimes specify certain contingencies that must be met to receive payments; others may require regular or periodic payments with no specified service or events that trigger payments under an agreement, or a combination of both. Agreements that are contingent upon the successful completion of an event prior to payment are considered unearned until the completion of the triggering event, and as such, no expense or liability is recorded until the successful completion of the triggering event. Where agreements are based on time and not on specific triggering events, the services are considered to be earned ratably over the period of the agreement, an
d as such expenses and liabilities are recorded ratably over the term of the agreement.
Stock-Based Compensation. MusclePharm measures and recognizes compensation expense for all share-based awards made to employees and directors, including stock options and stock purchase warrants, based on estimated fair values. The Company must estimate the fair value of share-based awards on the grant date using an option pricing model. MusclePharm values share-based awards using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The Black-Scholes model is highly complex and dependent on key estimates by management.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In January 2010, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued updated guidance to amend the disclosure requirements related to recurring and nonrecurring fair value measurements. This update requires new disclosures on significant transfers of assets and liabilities between Level 1 and Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy (including the reasons for these transfers) and the reasons for any transfers in or out of Level 3. This update also requires a reconciliation of recurring Level 3 measurements about purchases, sales, issuances and settlements on a gross basis. In addition to these new disclosure requirements, this update clarifies certain existing disclosure requirements. For example, this update clarifies that reporting entities are required to provide fair value measurement disclosures for each class of assets and liabilities rather than each major category of assets and liabilities. This update also clarifies the requirement for entities to disclose information about both the valuation techniques and inputs used in estimating Level 2 and Level 3 fair value measurements. This update will become effective for the Company with the interim and annual reporting period beginning January 1, 2010, except for the requirement to provide the Level 3 activity of purchases, sales, issuances, and settlements on a gross basis, which will become effective for the Company with the interim and annual reporting period beginning January 1, 2011. The Company will not be required to provide the amended disclosures for any previous periods presented for comparative purposes. Other than requiring additional disclosures, adoption of this update will not have a material effect on the Company's financial statements.
In July 2010, the FASB issued ASU 2010-20, Receivables (Topic 310): Disclosures about the Credit Quality of Financing Receivables and the Allowance for Credit Losses. ASU 2010-20 is to provide financial statement users with greater transparency about an entity's allowance for credit losses and the credit quality of its financing receivables. The disclosures about activity that occurs during the reporting period are effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning on or after December 15, 2010. The Company does not expect the provisions of ASU 2010-20 to have a material effect on its financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
In August 2010, the FASB issued an exposure draft on lease accounting that would require entities to recognize assets and liabilities arising from lease contracts on the balance sheet. The proposed exposure draft states that lessees and lessors should apply a "right-of-use model" in accounting for all leases. Under the proposed model, lessees would recognize an asset for the right to use the leased asset, and a liability for the obligation to make rental payments over the lease term. The lease term is defined as the longest possible term that is "more likely than not" to occur. The accounting by a lessor would reflect its retained exposure to the risks or benefits of the underlying leased asset. A lessor would recognize an asset representing its right to receive lease payments based on the expected term of the lease. Comments on this exposure draft were due by December 15, 2010 and the final standard is expected to be issued in the second quarter of 2011. The Company believes that the proposed standard, as currently drafted, will have neither a material impact on its reported financial position and reported results of operations, nor a material impact on the liquidity of the Company.
In August 2010, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2010-05, Measuring Liabilities at Fair Value, or ASU 2010-05, which amends ASC 820 to provide clarification of a circumstance in which a quoted price in an active market for an identical liability is not available. A reporting entity is required to measure fair value using one or more of the following methods: 1) a valuation technique that uses a) the quoted price of the identical liability when traded as an asset or b) quoted prices for similar liabilities (or similar liabilities when traded as assets) and/or 2) a valuation technique that is consistent with the principles of ASC 820. ASU 2010-05 also clarifies that when estimating the fair value of a liability, a reporting entity is not required to adjust to include inputs relating to the existence of transfer restrictions on that liability. The adoption did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements
In December 2010, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2010-29, Business Combinations (Topic 805) – Disclosure of Supplementary Pro Forma Information for Business Combinations. This ASU requires a public entity to disclose pro forma information for business combinations that occurred in the current reporting period. The disclosures include pro forma revenue and earnings of the combined entity for the current reporting period as though the acquisition date for all business combinations that occurred during the year had been as of the beginning of the annual reporting period. If comparative financial statements are presented, the pro forma revenue and earnings of the combined entity for the comparable prior reporting period should be reported as though the acquisition date for all business combinations that occurred during the current year had been as of the beginning of the comparable prior annual reporting period. ASU 2010-29 affects any public entity as defined by Topic 805 that enters into business combinations that are material on an individual or aggregate basis. ASU 2010-29 is effective prospectively for business combinations for which the acquisition date is on or after the beginning of the first annual reporting period beginning on or after December 15, 2010. Early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect the provisions of ASU 2010-29 to have an effect on its financial position, results of operations or cash flows.